Global Sustainable Energy: Current trends and Future Prospects

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Global Sustainable Energy: Current trends and Future Prospects Hashem AL-ghaili Jacobs University Bremen

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Exploiting natural resources 12/4/2014 2 400,000-year-old shelter from Terra Amata, France

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Industrial revolution 1700 12/4/2014 3

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Technological explosion 12/4/2014 4

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Current technological revolution 12/4/2014 5

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The impact of industrial revolution on our climate 12/4/2014 6 Image: http://www.st-edmunds.cam.ac.uk/CIS/houghton/images/fig4.jpg By the year 2100, carbon dioxide concentrations will rise to 600 - 700 parts per million.

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Switching towards clean energy 12/4/2014 7 Wind Power Hydropower Solar power Biomass energy Geothermal energy Nuclear power

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General overview 12/4/2014 8 Biomass energy Solar Power

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Switching towards clean energy 12/4/2014 9 Wind Power Hydropower Solar power Biomass energy Geothermal energy Nuclear power

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Global public support for energy sources 12/4/2014 10 Image via: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6e/Global_public_support_for_energy_sources_%28Ipsos_2011%29.png

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Global status with solar power 12/4/2014 11 Image via: http://assets.inhabitat.com/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/files/2013/12/global-solar-energy-generation-2012-infographic.jpg

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12/4/2014 12 Germany has a goal of producing 100% of electricity from renewable sources by 2050. http://thinkprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/Germany-renewables-638x566.png Status of Germany

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Status of Germany with solar power 12/4/2014 13 June 6th (1pm and 2pm) June 9th (National holiday) 24.24 GWh of electricity http://www.thelocal.de/20140619/germany-produces-half-of-electricity-needs-with-solar-power

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The potential of solar power 12/4/2014 14 Visualization via: Nadine May Data provided by the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) Total surface area required to fuel the world with solar power Europe (EU-25) Germany (De)

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The potential of solar energy in reducing CO2 emissions 12/4/2014 15 The Agua Caliente Solar Project Capacity: 290 MWh CO2 Reduction: 324,000 tons Arizona, United States Solnova Solar Power Station Capacity: 200 MWh CO2 Reduction: 185,000 tons Sanlucar la Mayor, Spain Welspun Solar MP Project Capacity: 150 MWh CO2 Reduction: 216,372 tons Neemuch, India Shams Solar Power Station Capacity: 100 MWh CO2 Reduction: 175,000 tons Abu Dhabi, UAE Ivanpah Solar Power Facility Capacity: 354 MWh CO2 Reduction: 400,000 tons California, United States Genesis Solar Energy Project Capacity: 250 MWh CO2 Reduction: 393,000 tons California, United States

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Ivanpah Solar Power Facility, U.S. 12/4/2014 16 Ivanpah Solar Power Facility Location: California, United States Commission date: Feb, 2014 Capacity: 354 megawatts (MWh) Generates power for 140,000 homes The Ivanpah installation reduces carbon dioxide emissions by over 400,000 tons annually.

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Canal Solar Power Project, India 12/4/2014 17

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A touch of innovation 12/4/2014 18

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Solar energy trends over the past 3 years 12/4/2014 19 More efficient. Minimized environmental risks. Cheaper. Smaller. Flexible. Transparent.

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Cost problem 12/4/2014 20 Image : http://greenecon.net/wp-content/uploads/2007/09/cost_kwh2.jpg

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Past prices 12/4/2014 21 Image: http://www.midlandsolarapplications.com/about-solar.html

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Long-term storage of solar energy 12/4/2014 22 Images : http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/icimages?p_imgid=130329 http://www.nature.com/news/2011/110929/images/news564-i2b.0.jpg Artificial leaf

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Biomass Energy 12/4/2014 23 Image: http://www.williamsrenewables.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/diagram.gif Terrestrial biomes Industrial waste Marine biomass

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Second-largest source of renewable electricity generation 12/4/2014 24 Graph: Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, Energy Outlook 2009. Biomass is the fastest growing, going from 11% of the total in 2007, to more than 41% in 2030.

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12/4/2014 25 Miscanthus Switchgrass Hemp Bamboo Maize Sugarcane Oil palm Rice Terrestrial biomes used for energy production Thermal conversion Chemical conversion Biochemical conversion Ethanol – Bioalcohols - Biodiesel - Biofuel gasoline - Bioethers -  Biogas

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Advantages of terrestrial biomes 12/4/2014 26 Advantages Clean and eco-friendly energy source. Products that are used in biomass are easily available. The material for biomass will surely never run out.

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12/4/2014 27 Disadvantages of terrestrial biomes Costly sometimes (depending on the substrate). The clearance of large areas including forests. Releases methane into the air (lesser than fossil fuels). Sustainable under certain conditions only. Consumption of fresh water. Competition for arable land. Food-fuel debate.

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12/4/2014 28 Second-generation biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass 40 million tonnes/year Rich substrate of glucose An abundant source of biomass Corn stover Wood shavings Woody remains

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Environmental impact of second-generation biofuels 12/4/2014 29 Graph: http://www.afdc.energy.gov/vehicles/images/GHG-emissions-transportation-fuels.jpg Life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission impacts of different corn ethanol plant types Michael Wang et al 2007 Environ. Res. Lett. 2 024001

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12/4/2014 30 Problem with lignocellulosic biomass Lignin

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12/4/2014 31 The search for novel cellulolytic enzymes continues Graphic by: Lignocellulose: A chewy problem, Katharine Sanderson - Nature The gribble (Limnoria quadripunctata) Termites feed on dead plant material with the help of their intestinal bacteria Fungus Trichoderma reesii (Hypocrea jecorina)

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12/4/2014 32 In practice The world's largest cellulosic ethanol plant 50 million liters of cellulosic ethanol a year Location: Crescentino, Italy

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12/4/2014 33 Marine macroalgae Image: http://innovatedevelopment.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/seaweed_biofuel.gif

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12/4/2014 34 Advantages of macroalgae as a biomass for energy production No fresh water required. Very abundant. Plays an important role in carbon capture and CO2 storage (0.7 million tons/year). Nitrogen and phosphorus are provided by fish. Can be collected from industrial waste.

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12/4/2014 35 Marine macroalgae as a biomass for the production of biofuels Image: http://innovatedevelopment.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/seaweed_biofuel.gif

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12/4/2014 36 Productivity of Biofuels by Different Plants Image: http://www.asiabiomass.jp/english/topics/images/1009_2_2.jpg Source: “Prospect of Biomass Energy of Sea Algae”, Prof. Shin Watanabe, Tsukuba University 50-60 % carbohydrates 1–3 % lipids 7–38 % minerals 10–47 % proteins

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12/4/2014 37 Simulation models and prediction of growth conditions Maps: NASA’s Earth Observatory / Hughes et al.

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12/4/2014 38 Natural distribution of shallow water macroalgae across the globe The potential coastal areas to culture macroalgae for biogas are indicated in red line. Map: NASA’s Earth Observatory

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12/4/2014 39 Production cost of ethanol obtained from different sources of biomass Graph : http://www.algenol.com/sites/default/files/production_graph.png Algae Biofuel Process by Algenol Yields 8000 Gallons per Acre at $1.27 per Gallon Aims to produce 20 billion gallons per year of low cost ethanol by 2033 1 gallon = 3.78541 liters

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12/4/2014 40 Summary

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